Program Notes

The Impressionist Music of Paris

Saint Louis Art Museum

Sculpture Hall

May 7, 2017, 3:00 pm

 

The years preceding the First World War are remembered by the French as the Belle Époque. Artists of every kind came to Paris and mingled together, exchanging ideas in the cafes and cabarets of the Left Bank and Montmartre. As Degas and other painters were freeing themselves from conventions of the past, a group of composers were revitalizing French music. By using unexpected scales and harmonies, they managed to convey, some of the same moods and colors of the Impressionist paintings.

1. La fille aux cheveux de lin……………Claude Debussy (1862-1918)

Jocelyn Wolfe, harp arranged by William Bauer

Translated as ‘The Girl with the Flaxen Hair,’ this 1910 piece was one of several based on a poem by Leconte de Lisle about a Scottish girl.

2. Golliwog’s Cakewalk …………………Claude Debussy (1862-1918)

arr. Bauer

This is the finale of Debussy’s 1908 Children’s Suite, dedicated to his young daughter Emma. The cakewalk was an American dance sensation which developed in American minstrel shows. Golliwog was a rag doll, colorfully costumed as a cakewalk dancer, who was the hero of series of a popular children’s books.

3. Gymnopedie No. 1………………………….Erik Satie (1866-1925)

arr. Bauer

Satie lived in Montmartre, earning a living as a cabaret pianist. His first experiment in modern music was this tranquil 1888 piece, oddly marked to be played, ‘slowly and painfully’ to emphasize its many dissonant notes. Always eccentric, Satie ate only white foods, and at his death, the clutter in his apartment included 150 umbrellas and two grand pianos, one stacked on top of the other.

4. Menuet from L’Arlesienne Suite No. 2….Georges Bizet (1838-1875)

Suzanne Schoomer, flute; Megan Montgomery, cello

Just as today’s films have soundtracks, the more lavish theatrical productions in this period would hire composers to write incidental music for plays. Although it was included in Suite N. 2 of Bizet’s music for a play, the piece was actually from Bizet’s 1867 opera, La jolie fille de Perth, based on Sir Walter Scott’s novel, The Fair Maid of Perth.

5. Sicilienne…………………………………Gabriel Fauré (1845-1924) arr. Bauer

This exquisite piece was first heard in 1898 as incidental music for a 1898 London production of Maurice Maeterlinck’s play Pelléas et Mélisande. Debussy composed an opera based on the play in 1902.
6. En Bâteau…………………………… Claude Debussy (1862-1918)

Suzanne Schoomer, flute arr. Bauer

Debussy’s inspiration for this movement of his Petite Suite was a simple poem about sailing by Paul Verlaine.

7. Carnival of the Animals…………..Camille Saint-Saëns (1835-1921)

The Aquarium arr. Bauer

The Elephant
The Swan,
Luke Oliver, violin

Although he was supposed to be working on his Third Symphony, Saint-Saens couldn’t resist writing the humorous Carnival of the Animals for an informal Mardi Gras concert in 1886. In The Aquarium, mysterious graceful fish glide through rippling waters. The Elephant merrily waltzes to themes borrowed from Mendelssohn and Berlioz. The Swan later became famous on its own as the music for Anna Pavlova’s miniature ballet, The Dying Swan, choreographed by Michael Fokine.

8. Pavane pour une infante défunte…………Maurice Ravel (1875-1937)

arr. Jeff Manookian

Ravel was a composition student of Fauré when he wrote this in 1899. When asked about the title, which translates as “Pavane for a Dead Princess,” Ravel explained that it was ‘a pavane as it would be danced by the young Infanta Maria Teresa,’ whose famous portrait by Diego Velásquez still hangs in the Louvre. The Spanish princess became Queen of France when she married her cousin, Louis XIV.


11. Barcarolle.…………………………..Jacques Offenbach (1819-1880)

from Tales of Hoffmann

Offenbach wrote nearly a hundred comic operettas, but his last work, The Tales of Hoffmann, was a serious opera. In 1879 he gave a preview performance at his home of Act IV, which was set in Venice and begins with this Venetian boat song, Barcarolle. Offenbach continued working on the opera for another year, but died while it was still in rehearsal, with the manuscript in his hand.

12. Galop infernal………………………Jacques Offenbach (1819-1880)

from Orpheus in the Underworld arr. Bauer

As soon as Parisians heard the Infernal Gallop when Orpheus in the Underworld opened in 1858, it was adopted as the official music for the Can-Can. CCO Artistic Director William Bauer chose this as a fitting tribute to the Saint Louis Art Museum for its landmark exhibit, Degas, Impressionism and the Paris Millinery Trade, on this its final day. Bravo!

Scott Joplin:  King of Ragtime

Missouri History Museum, Lee Auditorium

Sunday, March 19, 2017m  1:pm

The Composer

Scott Joplin was born 150 years ago and died on April 1, 1917. In cooperation with the Missouri History Museum, the Confluence Chamber Orchestra and guest speaker Edward A. Berlin present a musical guide to Joplin’s life, from the development of his ragtime career in Sedalia and St. Louis, to his tragic final days in New York.

The Guest Speaker

Edward A. Berlin, musicologist and Scott Joplin biographer After the performance, Dr. Berlin will sign copies of the new edition of his biography, King of Ragtime: Scott Joplin and His Era. Books will be available for purchase.

The Music

1. Maple Leaf Rag……………….Scott Joplin (ca. 1867 – 1917)

Nathan Beasley, piano arranged by William Bauer

2. The Entertainer……………………………………Scott Joplin

arr. Bauer

3. The Ragtime Dance….……………………………Scott Joplin

arr. Bauer

4. Peacherine Rag……………………………………Scott Joplin

Nathan Beasley, piano arr. Bauer

5. The Cascades……………………………………..Scott Joplin

arr. Bauer

6. Bethena, A Concert Waltz…………………………Scott Joplin

Alex Fu, piano

7. Solace, A Mexican Serenade………..…….…………Scott Joplin

arr. Bauer

8. Country Club Rag………………………………..Scott Joplin

arr. Bauer

9. Paragon Rag………………………………………Scott Joplin

Small Ensemble arr. William Zinn

10. Alexander’s Ragtime Band………..Irving Berlin (1888-1989)

11. A Real Slow Drag, from Treemonisha…………….Scott Joplin

Rose Fischer, soprano

Salute your partner, do the drag, drag, drag;

Look to your right and do the drag, drag, drag;

To your left, to your left, that’s the way.

Marching onward, marching to that lovely tune.

Marching onward, happy as a bird in June.

Sliding onward, sliding onward, listen to that rag.

Hop and skip, now do that Slow Drag.

Dance slowly, prance slowly, while you hear that pretty rag;

Dance slowly, prance slowly, now you do the real Slow Drag;

Walk slowly, talk slowly, listen to that rag:

Hop and skip now do that slow drag, do that slow drag slow!

The Soloists

Nathan Beasley is a high school student from Eldorado, Illinois who is a regular at the Ragtime Rendezvous in St. Louis, and the International Scott Joplin International Ragtime Festival in Sedalia.

Alex Fu is a St. Louis County high school student who studies classical piano and viola at the Community Music School of Webster University. He is a CCO student viola intern.

Rose Fischer has been a featured soloist with the St. Louis Women’s Chorale, Cornerstone Chorale and Brass, and Missouri Women’s Chorus and has performed as an ensemble member in many Union Avenue Opera productions. Currently a music teacher for the Ferguson-Florissant schools, her involvement with the youth of Ferguson gives added dimension to her portrayal of Scott Joplin’s Treemonisha, who sees education as the salvation of her people.

Saint Louis Art Museum

Family Sunday: Made in America

November 6, 2016

  1. Serenade,  Prelude………………………………Norman Leyden (1917-2014)

Very few people recognize Norman Leyden’s name, but the sound of his music is known around the world,  especially his orchestrations for films such as Walt Disney’s Cinderella, Alice in Wonderland, Peter Pan and Pinocchio.  In this lovely prelude, Leyden uses a strong theme that sweeps through every section of the orchestra.                                         

  1.  Old Man River,  from Show Boat.…………….Jerome Kern (1885-1945)

A hundred years ago there were floating theaters on the Mississippi, which stopped to bring exciting live entertainment to the towns and cities on the river banks. The 1927 musical, Show Boat, is about the people who work on a boat called on the Cotton Blossom.  An African American laborer tells of his hard life, “I get weary and sick of trying” and wishes he could be like Old Man River, who “just keeps rollin’ along.”               

  1. Anniversary Parade March……………………..Frank Johnson (1792-1844)  

Long before the Civil War,  Frank Johnson was a successful African-American composer and band leader in Philadelphia.  On tour to London in 1838, he played for young Queen Victoria, who presented him with a silver bugle.  Anniversary Parade March was written a year later for a  special performance in St. Louis.  Johnson’s dedication reads, “Composed expressly and humbly for the St. Louis Fire Company.”

  1. Theme from New World Symphony………Antonín Dvořák (1841-1904)

Dvořák incorporated the rhythms and folk tunes of his native Bohemia into the music he wrote.  When he came to New York in 1891 to direct the National Conservatory of Music, he advised our young composers that instead of imitating Europeans, they should create their own new and distinct American style, based on African American and Native American music.  Importantly, Dvořák’s writings inspired the young Scott Joplin to consider himself a classical composer.                              

  1. The Cascades……………………………………….Scott Joplin (c. 1867-1917)

African American composer Scott Joplin lived in St. Louis when he wrote this Ragtime masterpiece for the 1904 World’s Fair.  The Cascades were  three spectacular man-made  waterfalls  which  tumbled  down Art   

Hill into the lagoon below.  Along the top of the hill was a colonnade and three magnificent round pavilions.  Fountains, flowers and beautiful white statues were everywhere.  Each  night, the Cascades and all the exhibit palaces were outlined in a myriad of electric lights.  Although this fairytale scene was built to last only for the fair, we can still enjoy Joplin’s musical description, the hill, the lovely lagoon and the single palace that was meant to stay forever:  our Saint Louis Art Museum.                                      

  1. Missouri Waltz…………………………………………..Edgar Lee “Jelly” Stiles

Jelly Stiles, a white Ragtime pianist from Missouri, composed this tune, which he called The Graveyard Waltz. In 1914 an Iowa band leader published it as Missouri Waltz.  Lullaby lyrics were added in the mock racial speech that was popular at the time.  When Missouri’s Harry Truman was running for president in 1948, it became his theme song,  even though Truman did not like it because the words made fun of black people.  It was given better lyrics in 1949 when it became our state song.         

  1.  Ragtime Annie …………………………………………..American Fiddle Tune

Although this has been a favorite of American fiddlers for nearly 100 years, no one actually knows who Ragtime Annie was.  Some people wonder whether the tune might have been named for the Raggedy Ann doll and stories which were created by writer Johnny Gruelle in 1915.            

  1. America, from West Side Story…………..Leonard Bernstein (1918-1990)  

Bernstein uses Latino rhythms to set the story in an immigrant neighbor- hood of New York City.  In this lively song, a group of young people who have come here to work are arguing about whether life in America is better than it was back home in Puerto Rico.  The girls are glad to be here and say that in America you are “Free to be anything you choose,” and the boys answer sarcastically, “Free to wait tables and shine shoes.”

 

  1. Take Me Out to the Ball Game…….Jack Norworth & Albert Von Tilzer

When this song was written, neither the composer or lyricist had ever actually seen a baseball game.  The year was 1908, which was  the last time the Chicago Cubs won the World Series.  Because baseball is our national pastime, we invite you to sing along for your favorite team.  


Music for a Summer Evening

St. Joseph Church

Thursday, August 25, 2016, 7:30 pm

Program

1. Prelude from Serenade………………………Norman Leyden (1917-2014)

Norman Leyden’s name has never been familiar but his musical arrangements are known worldwide.  Over a long career, he composed, arranged and conducted for Glenn Miller, Arthur Godfrey, Mitch Miller, Frank Sinatra and a long list of radio, television and recording celebrities.  His many film credits include arrangements for Walt Disney’s Cinderella, Alice in Wonderland, Peter Pan and Pinocchio.  In this lovely prelude, Leyden uses a strong theme that sweeps through the orchestra, giving every musician a chance to play the melody.

2. Symphony No. 8 “Le Soir”…………….Franz Josef Haydn (1732-1809)

Allegro       Suzanne Schoomer, solo flute

Menuetto   Devin Allen, solo cello

In order to study music, Haydn had to leave home at age 6 and endure years of hunger and neglect by his teachers.  On his own in Vienna at 15,  he worked his way up from street musician to the job of a lifetime, at only 29, the appointment as Kappelmeister for the wealthy and powerful Esterházy family.  One of his first compositions for them was this symphony. It features a set of solo musicians embedded in the orchestra.  In the first movement, Haydn quotes an aria by Gluck, ‘Je n’aime pas le tabac beaucoup’  (‘I don’t like tobacco much’), a humorous touch that  the sophisticated Esterházys and their guests would have appreciated.

3. Theme from New World Symphony…..Antonín Dvořák (1841-1904), arranged by Jeff Manookian

Czech composer Dvořák built his international reputation by incorporat-ing the unusual rhythms and folk tunes of his native country into his music.  When he came to New York in 1891 as director of the National Conservatory of Music, he wrote articles recommending that American composers develop their own style.  After a black student, Harry Burleigh, introduced him to Negro spirituals, he declared that the new style should be based on African American and Native American music. Dvořák’s writings encouraged young Scott Joplin to consider himself a classical composer.  This famous theme, from the second movement of Dvořák’s New World Symphony was later used by another of his pupils, William Arms Fisher, for the hymn Going Home.

4. Aberystwyth…………………………Ralph Vaughan Williams (1872-1958)

Although the hymn tune Aberystwyth sounds Medieval, it was written by Welsh composer Joseph Parry in 1876.  Vaughan Williams’ variations weave the haunting tune though several interesting counter-melodies.  He wrote this in London during the Blitz, while he was working to assist war refugees and secure the release of interned musicians in Europe.

5. Double Violin Concerto……………Johann Sebastian Bach (1658-1750)

Largo       Patricia Buehler and Luke Oliver, solo violins

According to Albert Schweitzer, Bach “learned from Vivaldi the perfect violin technique, the art of writing singably.”  One of Bach’s most beloved pieces, the Largo is played the way it would be sung.  The long phrases of the violin soloists respond to each other as singers in a duet.  There are pauses for the instruments to breathe.  The subdued orchestra plays a gentle  supporting  melody  in the background.

6. Anniversary Parade March………………….Frank Johnson (1792-1844), arranged by William Bauer

Long before the Civil War, Frank Johnson was a successful African-American composer and band leader in racially tolerant Philadelphia. On tour to England in 1838 he played for young Queen Victoria, who pre- ented him with a silver bugle.  Anniversary Parade March was written about 1839, in preparation for a midwestern tour.  The dedication reads, “Composed expressly and humbly for the St. Louis Fire Company.” It is uncertain whether he was actually able to perform the march when he arrived in St. Louis.  Johnson was not aware of a Missouri law pro- hibiting blacks and whites from performing together.  Because his band was integrated, they were arrested, fined and ordered to leave the state.   CCO is delighted to give St. Louis firefighters this long delayed tribute.

7. Missouri Waltz…………………………………………Edgar Lee “Jelly” Stiles, arranged by William Bauer

Recent research attributes the original tune to Jelly Stiles, a white rag- time pianist from New Franklin, Missouri, who called it The Graveyard Waltz. Yet, it was copyrighted in 1914 as Missouri Waltz, by Iowa band- leader John Valentine and his arranger, Frederic Knight Logan.  In a later edition, the publisher added lullaby lyrics in mock racial dialect, a popular style of the time period.  The waltz was revived during  the 1948 presidential race, as a theme song for Harry Truman, although the candidate frankly disliked its offensive lyrics. The words were revised before  it  was  adopted as the state song in 1949.  Truman, a pianist, was frequently asked to play it. A famous photograph shows him at the White House piano, with comedian Jack Benny playing his Stradavarius.  An interviewer once asked Truman if Missouri Waltz was his favorite, and was told that he preferred “Chopin’s A-Flat Opus 42 Waltz.”


The Silk Road and the Orient Express

Saint Louis Art Museum

Sculpture Hall

Sunday, April 17, 3:15 pm

For many centuries, camel caravans carried precious silks and spices from Asia and Africa over the Silk Road to the ancient trading center of Istanbul. Marco Polo followed these routes from Venice to China and back. He wrote a book on his travels in 1300, which introduced Europeans to the wonders of the Orient.

Beginning in 1883, wealthy Europeans and Americans like James Ballard could go to Paris and ride the Orient Express, a fast luxury train to Istanbul. There, they could shop in the Grand Bazaar for beautiful things like handwoven Oriental rugs and bring them back home on the train as souvenirs.

Faraway lands inspire composers to write music that brings sights and sounds from their travels to our imaginations. The Confluence Chamber Orchestra invites you to explore a marketplace of music from the Silk Road, and then, to climb aboard the Orient Express, for a lively trip back to Paris, stopping in some of Europe’s most musical cities.

Musical Treasures from the Silk Road

Beijing, China

1. Mo Li Hua and Butterfly Lovers

Là sui monti del’est………………..Giacomo Puccini (1848-1924)

Mo Li Hua (Jasmine Flower)………………Chinese Traditional

Butterfly Lovers…….He Zhanhao(b.1933)/Chen Gang(b. 1935)

     Aaron Tan, violin

 

Seoul, South Korea

2. Mystic Caravan .………………………..Soon He Newbold (b.1974)

Bayankongor Province, Mongolia   

3. Ezen Chingesee………………………….Batrozig Vaanchig (b. 1977)

      Devin Allen and Megan Montgomery violoncello

      James Powers, Bass Viol

 

Tbilisi Georgia

4. Orientale………………………….Alexander Glazounov (1865-1936)

 

Caucasus

5. Procession of the Sardar………..Mikhail Ippolitov-Ivanov (1859-1935)

       Suzanne Schoomer, piccolo

 

Bharuk, India

6. Bharuk Indian Ensemble

      Rishi Anand,  Anshul Raman, Vishnu Rangachari and Abhijit Srirangam

North Africa

7. Sahara Crossing

Zimbabwe

8. Mai Nozipo………………………….Dumisani Maraire (1944-1999)

      Niraj Tolia and James Powers, Djembe drums

Returning on the Orient Express

Istanbul, Turkey

Rondo alla Turca…………..Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart (1756-1791)

      Suzanne Schoomer, flute

Budapest, Hungary

10. The Sky Glows with a Thousand Stars……………Traditional

Vienna, Austria

11. Bahn Frei!………………………………..Eduard Strauss (1835-1916)

Paris, France

12. Can-Can…………………………….Jacques Offenbach (1819-1880)


The Roots of Ragtime

Missouri History Museum

Lee Auditorium

Thursday, March 10, 2016, 7 pm

“The 1890’s were a time of musical revolution in America: a new sound called ragtime burst upon the scene … a purely American concoction of formal and folk traditions. It expressed the imagination and dynamism of turn-of-the-century America, when the country was young and adventuresome in spirit. ”
Trebor Jay Tichenor (1940-2014) Pianist and founding member of the St. Louis Ragtimers

– PROGRAM –
1. Celebrated Dances…………………………….Frank Johnson (1792-1844)
A Favorite Hop arr. W. Bauer
Celebrated Waltz
Spanish Dance
African American composer, teacher and band leader, Frank Johnson,
proved that black musicians could succeed in northern cities.
2. Viola Concerto, allegro …………Georg Phillip Telemann (1681–1767)
Preston Boyd, viola
Many ragtimers, including Scott Joplin, studied string instruments and
incorporated classical techniques like counterpoint into their works.
3. Syncopated Excerpts

Eine Kleine Nachtmusic……….Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart (1756-1791)
William Tell Overture……………………….Gioachino Rossini (1792-1868)
Syncopation moves the accent of the music to unexpected places. It can
also make music immortal by imprinting it on the memory.
4. Mai Nozipo………………………………….Dumisani Maraire (1944-1999)
arr. W. Bauer
This authentic piece from Zimbabwe is syncopated and adds melody
after melody in layers over the steady rhythmic pattern.
5. Liberty Bell March………………………..John Phillip Sousa (1854-1932)
arr. W. Bauer
Sousa’s innovative marches put the accents on the off-beats, and had a
definite pattern of repeated tunes. Scott Joplin also used both techniques.
6. At a Georgia Campmeeting……………………Kerry Mills (1869-1948)
Dance Discovery arr. W. Bauer
Dancers: Marty Aubuchon, Kathy Day, Tom Day, Tim Hirzel, Jill Horn, Karen Jackson,
Missy Reisenleiter, Mark Rice, Mary Schmidt, Rebecca Taylor
Kerry Mills’ 1899 Cakewalk was the first syncopated hit to be played in
middle class homes. Its acceptance created a demand for Ragtime.
7. Golliwog’s Cakewalk……………………….Claude Debussy (1862-1918)
arr. W. Bauer
Sousa’s band created a sensation in Europe by playing Cakewalks on
their 1893 tour, inspiring some classical composers to write their own.
8. Rhapsody Rag……………………………………………………. Budd L. Cross
Nathan Beasley, piano
Ragtimers enjoyed “ragging” famous pieces such as Liszt’s Hungarian
Rhapsody No. 2.
9. Grand Bamboula………………..Louis Moreau Gottschalk (1829-1869)
arr. W. Bauer
Louis Moreau Gottschalk was American’s first virtuoso pianist and composer.
He introduced classical audiences to Afro-Creole rhythms and
encouraged sales of pianos.
10. Pork and Beans…………………Charles“Luckey” Roberts (1887-1968)
Nathan Beasley, piano
Luckey Roberts worked in minstrel shows during the years that black
performers began to transform its music into Ragtime. Later, in Harlem,
he contributed to Ragtime’s development into jazz.
11. Maple Leaf Rag………………………………….Scott Joplin (c.1867-1917)
Nathan Beasley, piano
Scott Joplin combined Ragtime’s elements into a structure that qualified
it as classical music. Maple Leaf Rag gave Joplin a secure income and
made John Stark a successful St. Louis publisher.
12. The Entertainer………………………………….Scott Joplin (c.1867-1917)
arr. W. Bauer
This beloved piece was written and published in St. Louis in 1903 while
Joplin lived at what is now the Scott Joplin State Historic Site.


The Roots of Ragtime, preview                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           The Monday Club of Webster Groves

Monday, March 7, 2016, 12 noon
“The 1890’s were a time of musical revolution in America: a new sound called ragtime burst upon the scene … a purely American concoction of formal and folk traditions. It expressed the imagination and dynamism of turn-of-the-century America, when the country was young and adventuresome in spirit. ”
Trebor Jay Tichenor (1940-2014) Pianist and founding member of the St. Louis Ragtimers

1. Celebrated Dances…………………………….Frank Johnson (1792-1844)
A Favorite Hop arr. W. Bauer
Celebrated Waltz
Spanish Dance
African American composer, teacher and band leader Frank Johnson proved that black musicians could succeed in northern cities.

2. Syncopated Excerpts
Eine Kleine Nachtmusic……….Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart (1756-1791)
William Tell Overture……………………….Gioachino Rossini (1792-1868)
Syncopation moves the accent of the music to unexpected places. It can also make music immortal by imprinting it on the memory.

3. Mai Nozipo…………………………………Dumisani Maraire (1944-1999)
Jim Powers, djembe drum arr. W. Bauer
This authentic piece from Zimbabwe is syncopated, and adds melody after melody in layers over the steady rhythmic pattern.

4. Liberty Bell March………………………..John Phillip Sousa (1854-1932)
arr. W. Bauer
Sousa’s innovative marches put accents on the off-beats and also had a pattern of repeated tunes.  Joplin also used both techniques.

5. At a Georgia Campmeeting……………………Kerry Mills (1869-1948) arr. W. Bauer
Mills’ 1899 Cakewalk was the first syncopated hit to be played in middle class homes. Its acceptance created a demand for Ragtime.

6. Golliwog’s Cakewalk……………………….Claude Debussy (1862-1918)
arr. W. Bauer
Sousa’s band created a sensation in Europe by playing Cakewalks on their 1893 tour, inspiring some classical composers to write their own.

7. Grand Bamboula………………..Louis Moreau Gottschalk (1829-1869)
arr. W. Bauer
Louis Moreau Gottschalk was America’s first virtuoso pianist and composer. He introduced classical audiences to Afro-Creole rhythms and encouraged sales of pianos.

8. Paragon Rag………………………………………..Scott Joplin (c.1867-1917)
Confluence Quartet : arr. W. Zinn
William Bauer, violin Lisa Steel, viola
Mary Wilcox, violin Megan Montgomery, cello
Although Joplin’s rags were published as piano music, they were often performed on combinations of instruments. This rag, and Country Club, which follows, date from 1907.

9. Country Club……………………………………….Scott Joplin (c.1867-1917)
Confluence Quartet

10. The Entertainer………………………………….Scott Joplin (c.1867-1917)
arr. W. Bauer
This beloved piece was written and published in St. Louis in 1903 while Joplin was living in the modest flat on Delmar which is now the Scott Joplin State Historic Site.


Roots of Ragtime, Monday, February 15

Missouri History Museum 

Grand Hall

1. Mai Nozipo……………………………….Dumisani Maraire (1944-1999)
Jim Powers, djembe drum arr. W. Bauer
Elements of African music were passed down to African Americans in work songs, hymns and dances, but the original forms were lost. Mai Nozipo is authentic music from Zimbabwe, recorded by Maraire, a modern musicologist. Instead of having regular beats, the rhythm of Mai Nozipo is ragged, like Ragtime. This is also called syncopation.

2. Celebrated Dances……………………………Frank Johnson (1792-1844)
A Favorite Hop arr. W. Bauer
Celebrated Waltz
Spanish Dance
In the early 1800’s, Frank Johnson was an African American composer and band leader in racially tolerant Philadelphia. His dances are very similar to music popular in Europe. On tour in 1838, he performed for young Queen Victoria, who gave him a silver bugle. Johnson also brought his band to St. Louis. After the Civil War, many African Americans moved north, where some became successful entertainers.

3. Viola Concerto, allegro ……….Georg Phillip Telemann (1681–1767)
Preston Boyd, viola
Ragtime borrowed some techniques from classical music. Sometimes the orchestra plays one melody, while the soloist plays another. This is is called counterpoint, which Scott Joplin also used in his music. Telemann used syncopation for emphasis, which can be heard in the solo part. Joplin and Telemann were largely self-taught, and both played multiple instruments. The viola is very similar to a violin, but is larger and lower. This is the first known concerto for the instrument.

4. Grand Bamboula………………Louis Moreau Gottschalk (1829-1869)
arr. W. Bauer
America’s first virtuoso pianist and composer, Gottschalk was inspired by Chopin to use ethnic rhythms. He wrote this piece at age 19. A bamboula is an Afro-Creole bass drum played in his native New Orleans. Gottschalk was a star entertainer who toured the Americas in the mid-1800’s and encouraged many people to buy pianos. His published pieces remained popular long after his death.

5. At a Georgia Campmeeting…………………Kerry Mills (1869-1948) arr. W. Bauer
When violin professor Kerry Mills heard Ragtime, he gave up teaching to compose and publish music in New York’s Tin Pan Alley. Cakewalks had been identified with black minstrel shows, but Mills’ syncopated hit At a Georgia Campmeeting bridged the racial gap, and was played on parlor pianos of the white middle class for decades. Mills based his tune on a Civil War song, Our Boys Will Shine, which was a clever marketing device. He later wrote Meet Me in St. Louis.

6. Golliwog’s Cakewalk………………………Claude Debussy (1862-1918)
arr. W. Bauer
Ragtime also influenced classical music. John Phillip Sousa’s band created a sensation in Europe playing Cakewalks on tour in the 1890’s. Some European composers wrote their own. In Debussy’s Children’s Corner suite, each piece featured one of his small daughter’s toys. The finale was a doll dancing the Cakewalk.

7. Rhapsody Rag……………………………………Harry Jentes (1887-1958)
Nathan Beasley, piano
Harry Jentes was a white vaudeville performer and prolific composer of popular songs. Rhapsody Rag, based on Liszt’s Hungarian Rhapsody No. 2, was his first success, written while he worked as a pianist and arranger for Kerry Mills’ publishing company, Mills Music.

8. Maple Leaf Rag…………………………………..Scott Joplin (c.1867-1917)
Nathan Beasley, piano
Scott Joplin’s musical family moved from Texas to Sedalia, Missouri, a booming railroad town with performing opportunities. In 1899 music store owner John Stark took a chance and published Maple Leaf Rag, one the most difficult and best-selling rags ever written. It gave Joplin a secure income and made Stark a successful publisher.

9. The Entertainer…………………………………..Scott Joplin (c.1867-1917)
arr. W. Bauer
This beloved piece was written and published here in St. Louis in 1903 while Joplin was living in the modest flat on Delmar which is now the Scott Joplin State Historic Site.


Holiday Traditions,  December 12, 2015

Saint Louis Art Museum

Sculpture Hall

1. Chanukah Suite………………………arranged by William Bauer
Ma’oz Tzur – is sung after menorah candles are lit.
S’vi’von, sov, sov, sov – a dreidel song.
Mi Y’malel – recalls the story of the Maccabees.
O Chanukah, O Chanukah – a dance of rejoicing.

2. Ding Dong Merrily on High. ……T. Arbeau (1519-1595)

Thoinot Arbeau is an anagram of Jehan Tabourot, a French cleric who collected French Renaissance dances, one of which George Woodward used for this carol in 1924.

3. Tallis Fantasia …….Thomas Tallis (1505-1585), arr. Bauer

One of England’s great composers of religious music, Tallis worked under the patronage of all the English monarchs from Henry II to Queen Elizabeth I. CCO Artistic Director William Bauer arranged this theme in homage to Ralph Vaughan Williams.

4. The Nutcracker……………………..Pyotr Ilyich Tchaikovsky
March (1840-1893)
Dance of the Sugar Plum Fairy
Trepak
Although the 1892 premier of The Nutcracker was not a success, Tchaikovsky then put together his popular and much shorter Nutcracker Suite. In the last half century, the full length ballet has become a staple of dance companies, which now depend on it as a major source of revenue.

5. I Wonder as I Wander……..John Jacob Niles (1892-1980)
Violin Soloist, Aaron Tan Collecting folk music in Appalachia in 1933, Niles heard a haunting fragment sung by a ragged young girl. He composed this beautiful hymn to complete her song.

6. Minka……………………………Ukranian Folk Song

Popular in Europe since the early 19th century, Minka has been sung in many languages. Beethoven was one of several composers to use its melody. In recent years it has become a children’s carol incorporating lyrics from both Deck the Halls and Jingle Bells.

7. Holiday Chestnuts…………………………………………..arr. Bauer
Up on the Housetop………………Benjamin Hanby, 1864
The Christmas Song……Bob Wells & Mel Tormé, 1945
Silver Bells……………Jay Livingston & Ray Evans, 1950
Clement Moore’s 1822 poem, The Night Before Christmas clearly influenced Up on the Housetop, America’s oldest song about Santa. Because of Benjamin Hanby, generations of children have assumed that reindeer have paws.
Although The Christmas Song was written by Mel Tormé., Nat King Cole was the first to record it.
Silver Bells made its debut in 1950 sung by Bob Hope and Marilyn Maxwell. Bing Crosby and Carol Richards sang it in The Lemon Drop Kid, in 1951.

8. White Christmas………………………..Irving Berlin (1888-1989)
When Irving Berlin finished writing White Christmas, he told his secretary, “Grab your pen and take down this song. I just wrote the best song I’ve ever written — heck, I just wrote the best song that anybody’s ever written!”

9. Jingle Bells…………………James Lord Pierpont (1822-1893)                     This essential holiday piece was actually written for Thanksgiving in Savannah, Georgia, in 1857. Pierpont’s tune is used for winter songs worldwide.


Musical Portrait of America,  October 25, 2015

Saint Louis Art Museum

Grigg Gallery

1. America the Beautiful………………………Samuel A. Ward (1847-1903)
Ward wrote this tune, Materna, on a ferry ride from Coney Island in 1882, setting it to the words of an old hymn. Katharine Lee Bates wrote her poem “Pike’s Peak” in Colorado in 1893. Her words and his music were finally published together in 1910 as “America the Beautiful.”

2. Meet Me in St. Louis, Louis………………….. Kerry Mills (1869-1948)
Kerry Mills was a violin professor who gave up teaching to become a prosperous composer and music publisher in New York’s Tin Pan Alley. This wildly popular 1904 song helped to publicize the St. Louis World’s Fair and has been our city’s unofficial anthem ever since.

3. Fiddlemaniacs……………………Traditional, arr. W. Bauer
Red River Valley
Old Joe Clark
Fiddlers were among the pioneers settling the American West in the 1800’s, providing accompaniment in times of sadness and joy. Red River Valley is about missing a loved one who is going far away. Frontier humor shines in Old Joe Clark: “he had a house fifteen stories high, and every story in that house was filled with chicken pie.”

4. Grand Bamboula………………..Louis Moreau Gottschalk
(1829-1869)
Gottschalk, America’s first famous pianist and composer, was inspired by Chopin to use ethnic rhythms. He wrote this piece at age 19. A bamboula is an Afro-Creole bass drum played in his native New Orleans. Gottschalk gave audiences a taste for non-European music, and was a strong influence on Joplin and other Ragtime composers.

5. Celebrated Dances………..Frank Johnson, arr. W. Bauer
. A Favorite Hop (1792-1844)
. Celebrated Waltz
. Spanish Dance
This is a world premiere performance. Our violinist John Ramsay found the manuscript in dance music archives. Long before the Civil War, Frank Johnson was a successful African American composer and band leader in racially tolerant Philadelphia. On tour in 1838 he played for young Queen Victoria, who gave him a silver bugle.

6. Shenandoah……………………….Traditional, arr. W. Bauer

This folk song came from the French voyageurs and American river men, who traditionally sang as they traveled our wide rivers in canoes and flatboats, bringing furs and supplies to trading posts like St. Louis.

7. The Entertainer…………………Scott Joplin, arr. W. Bauer
(c.1867-1917)
This wonderful piece was written and published in St. Louis in 1903, while Joplin was living in the modest flat on Delmar which is now the Scott Joplin State Historic Site. We will celebrate his 150th birthday in 2017.

8. Copland Suite………………Aaron Copland, arr. W. Bauer
(1900-1990)
. Simple Gifts, from Appalachian Spring
. Saturday Night Waltz, from Rodeo
. Hoedown, from Rodeo
One of the 20th century’s greatest classical composers, Copland used wide open harmonies to suggest America’s landscape, and wove in popular melodies to set his music in historical time. The ballets Appalachian Spring and Rodeo are sentimental love stories written during WWII.


Summer Family Concert,  Sunday, August 30, 2015

St. Joseph Church, Clayton

1. Klezmer Suite…………. arranged by William Bauer
(Played continuously)
. Araber Tanz…..Chassidic Traditional
. Terk in America…. Naftule Brandwein
. Harmonika…..Ashkenazi Traditional

2. Double Violin Concerto……Johann Sebastian Bach
. Vivace                                                                (1685-1750)
Soloists Luke Oliver and Patricia Buehler, violins

3. Pizzicato Polka…..Johann Strauss II & Josef Strauss
(1825-1899) (1827-1870)

4. Sally in Our Alley…………….. Frank Bridge (1879-1941)
Soloist Devin Allen, cello

5. Lullaby……………………………………….William Hofeldt

6. Four Swedish Wedding Marches……..arr. W. Bauer
. Gånglåt från Appelbo……………………Traditional
. Akta dej for flikor!……………………..A. Anderson
. Gånglåt fran Mockfjärd…………………Traditional
. Gånglåt fran Gårdeby……………………Traditional

7. Mariachi!…………………………………………John O’Neill
(1932 – )

8. The Entertainer……………………………….. Scott Joplin
(ca. 1867- 1917)

9. Emperor Waltz……..Johann Strauss II, arr. W. Bauer


Spring Family Concert,  Sunday May 17, 2015

St. Joseph’s Church, Clayton
1. Don Quixote Suite Georg Phillip Telemann (1681-1767)
. Overture
. Awakening of Don Quixote
. His Attack on the Windmills

In 1606 Miguel de Cervantes published the first volume of Don Quixote 1606. His widely popular comic novel of this elderly, delusional knight still appears on lists of the world’s greatest literature. German composer Telemann wrote an opera Don Quixote and this suite of the same name in 1761, at the age of 90. Telemann was both a rival and a close friend of Bach, and was the godfather of Carl Phillip Emanuel Bach.

2. Air from Suite in D Johann Sebastian Bach (1685-1750)
Arr. William Bauer
This Air is one of Bach’s most beloved pieces. For many years it was heard daily on St. Louis classical station KFUO as the theme for Music of the Masters. The 19th-Century violinist Carl Wilhelmj transcribed it as a violin solo with piano accompaniment, in the key of C, so that he could play it entirely on the violin’s lowest string, renaming it Air on the G String.

3. Open Lands from Deerpath Triptych William Hofeldt

Published in 2001, this is the only contemporary piece on our program, and one of two by American composers. William Hofeldt was commisioned to write three pieces for the string orchestra of Deerpath Middle School in Lake Forest, Illinois. Open Lands, the first part of the suite, refers to the 700 acres of open lands,including virgin prairies and wetlands that have been restored and preserved by a community conservation group.

9. La Musica Notturna delle Strade di Madrid
Luigi Boccherini (1743-1805)
Soloists: Devin Allen, cello and Aaron Tan, violin
. Minuetto de Chiechi
. Allegro Vivo-Passacalle (Los Manolos)
. La Retirada
Italian composer and cellist Boccherini spent most of his adult life in service to the Spanish Court. For a time he was employed by a brother of Charles III who married a commoner and was exiled from Madrid, along with his retinue, which included his cellist. Among the many compositions written for his exiled patron was Boccherini’s nostalgic suite, La Musica Notturna delle Strade di Madrid (Evening Music from the Streets of Madrid.) Baroque suites were characteristically written in in the rhythms of popular court dances. The first two movements in our program translate as Minuet of the Blind Beggars and Passacalle of the Mandolin Players. The piece ends with a military band marching through the streets at the curfew hour, playing the Retreat.

5. Sarabande George Friedrich Handel (1685-1759)
arr. Jean-François Noël
The tune of this lovely Sarabande was already well known in 1733 when Handel quoted it in his D Minor Suite for solo keyboard. Interestingly, the Sarabande, as a dance, was imported from the Spanish New World colonies. Fast and indecent, it was promptly banned in Spain. However it was wildly popular, and spread to Italy and later to France, where it became the elegant slow dance befitting Handel’s Sarabande. Court dances flourished during the long reign of Louis XIV, from 1638 to 1715. Baroque composers continued to write in dance forms through the end of the 18th century.

6. Janáćek-Grieg Suite Arr. William Bauer
Leoš Janáćek (1854-1928); Edvard Grieg (1843-1907)
. Allegretto from Suite for String Orchestra (Janacek)
. Gavotte from Holberg Suite (Grieg)
. Sarabande
. Rigaudon

Although Grieg was Norwegian and Janáćek was Czech, these two contemporaries each collected folk dance melodies and used them often in their compositions. Their music is often paired on recordings and in concerts today. A mix and match suite of pieces by two different composers would not have been at all unusual in a 19th Century chamber music concert.

7. Carmen Suite Georges Bizet (1838 – 1875)
Arr. William Bauer
. Prelude
. Aragonaise
. Intermezzo
. Les Toréadors

Bizet’s opera is based on a novella by Prosper Mérimée, an influential French writer, historian and archaelogist. Because of concerns about its dark subject matter, the Opéra-Comique delayed its production. Reviews of the 1875 were critical and audience reception was lukewarm. Sadly, Bizet died of a heart attack before the short initial run was completed, believing that Carmen was a failure. It would become one of the most popular operas of all time.

8. Grand Bamboula Louis Moreau Gottschalk (1829-1869)

Gottschalk was a native of New Orleans. His father was a London-born Jewish businessman; his mother’s family were former French colonists from Haiti. Bilingual Louis was a prodigy as both a pianist and composer. When he was 13 his father took him to Paris to study. Chopin was among the pianists who attended Gottschalk’s 1845 debut performance. “Bamboula,” his signature piano piece, written when he was 19, was based partly on a Creole folk tune, and featured rhythms of a low-pitched Afro-Creole drum, the bamboula. William Bauer’s transcription of the piano score uses the low strings for the big drum.
Gottschalk became the most famous American virtuoso pianist and composer. He toured extensively in the Americas collecting exotic music to bring his innovative compositions to wider audiences. Gottschalk’s music was a direct influence on Scott Joplin and other ragtime composers.

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